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1795 GEORGE WASHINGTON Historic Autograph Letter

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1795 GEORGE WASHINGTON Historic Autograph Letter

Lot 0116 Details

Description
Autographs
President George Washington Prepares Treaty Ratifications With Great Britain (Jay's Treaty) and Awaits Confirmation of the Northwest Territory Indian Tribes Treaty (Treaty of Greenville)
GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799). 1st President of the United States (April 30, 1789 to March 4, 1797); a Founding Father of the United States, serving as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War; presided over the 1787 Constitutional Convention held at Philadelphia.
September 16, 1795-Dated Federal Period, Important Historical Content, Autograph Letter Signed, "G. Washington" as President, 3 pages, measuring 8.875" x 7.375", at Mount Vernon, Choice Very Fine. This outstanding Letter is addressed to Colonel Timothy Pickering serving as United States Secretary of State, marked as "(Private)" at the upper right of the first page. This Letter is in choice overall quality, having an Integral Transmittal Envelope upon the back sheet, retaining its original red wax seal with its resulting tear from opening at opposite having a deft repair. Housed in a special cloth hardcover slipcase for storage and presentation. A highly important Letter with rich historical content. Provenance: From the family of Timothy Pickering. ( Please see our Online Auction Catalog having significant additional historical information and content.)

The entire text is fully and completely by Washington’s own hand, where President George Washington writes, in full:

“Mount Vernon 16th Sept. 1795 ---- (Private)

Dear Sir, ---

Monday's mail brought me both your letters of the 11th instant. The one containing an extract from Maj. [Isaac] Craig's letter, relative to the conclusion of the treaty with the North Western Tribes of Indians, was very acceptable -- and I pray you to dispatch [James] Seagrove [US Agent of Southern Indian Affairs], and impress strongly upon him the necessity, and the earnest wish of the government, that we would, without delay, effect, if it can be done, a peace between the Creeks and Chiccasaws [Chickasaws]. It would be a pleasing circumstance not only to be enabled to say at the meeting of Congress -- that we were at Peace with all the Indian Nations, but by the mediation of the U. States we had settled the differences between the tribes above mentioned; the latter of whom having been always our friends, and engaged according to their own accord in a war partly on our behalf.

My letter from Baltimore by Express (the expence of which I preferred to the delay of waiting three days for the next mail) and my other letter from Elkton, will evince my anxiety to get the several dispatches for our public characters abroad namely -- [the former Minister to Great Britain / Special Commissioner and Envoy Extraordinary to Spain Thomas] Pinckney, [Minister to France James] Monroe and [Minister to The Hague John Quincy] Adams to hand as soon as possible; I request therefore to know (if they are gone) -- when, by whom, and for what Ports they were sent: -- and I request moreover, that several copies may be sent to all of them to insure the arrival of one.

I am sorry I had not sounded Mr. [Elias] Boudinot on the appointment to the Mint [as Director of the Mint -- nominated on December 10th, 1795; and confirmed on December 11th] before he left the vicinity of Philad; as Mr. [Henry William] de Dissausure [Director of the U.S. Mint] cannot, or will not, remain at his Post beyond the early part of October.

Mr. Marshall (from some peculiar circumstances) declines the offer of Attorney General; and I have been enquiring into the abilities and other qualifications for the Law characters in Maryland -- but not much to my satisfaction as yet.

I perceive by the Gazettes, that the [His Majesty's cruiser] Africa [under the command of Captain Rodman Home) was disappointed of her expected prize [the capture of the Medusa with French Minister Joseph Fauchet aboard], and had returned to her former station at New Port. Have you heard whether the order for quitting it, has been communicated to Captn. Holmes? -- and if so, what has been the result? -- and the sentiments it has excited in persons of different descriptions. --- With much truth, --- I am, Dear Sir, Your Affectionate -- (Signed) Go. Washington”.

Docket upon the back Transmittal page reads: “Private -- The President of the U.S. -- Sept. 16. 1795. recd. 19th. -- ansd. 21st & 23d.”

_______________

On November 19, 1794, Jay's Treaty with Great Britain was signed to settle terms of Peace, Amity, Commerce, Navigation, Boundaries and Extradition. The terms of the treaty were not made known until March of 1795. The Senate ratified the treaty on June 24, 1795, after long debate and President Washington signed the treaty on August 14, 1795.

On August 20, 1795, Secretary of War, Timothy Pickering, agreed to take on the duties of the office of Secretary of State -- after it was revealed (through the interceptions of communications from Joseph Fauchet, the Minister of the French Republic, to his own government) that Secretary of State Edmund Randolph was implicated in improper, “near-treasonous” activities. Randolph resigned when he was called in question by President Washington. Fauchet denied that he meant any reflections on his honor. Randolph himself wrote an elaborate vindication of his actions.

Pickering's immediate task was to prepare definitive instructions for the American diplomat who was to execute the exchange of treaty ratifications with Great Britain. The task was assigned to the most available diplomat of rank, John Quincy Adams, the American Minister resident at The Hague, who was immediately ordered to London. At the same time, the former Minister to Great Britain, Thomas Pinckney, was appointed “Special Commissioner and Envoy Extraordinary to Spain” (effective April of 1795) and was negotiating with Spain. Through his diligent efforts, the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Known as “Pinckney's Treaty”) of October 27, 1795 was signed at Madrid. Spain recognized the boundary claims of the U.S. under the Treaty of 1783 [in accordance with the treaty of peace between the U.S. and Great Britain] and gave to the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River. ( Please see our Online Auction Catalog having significant additional historical information and content.)


In the years following the American Revolution, American officials sought to force the Indians to submit to the victorious Colonials. However, the Indians still regarded themselves as independent and continued to negotiate from a position of insistent pride. Due to the Indians' obstinacy, the government was forced to enforce its claims by sending in the military.

In October 1791, General Arthur St. Clair, the Governor of the Northwest Territory (served 1787-1802), was sent into the wilderness with a 2,000-man force. In a bloody confrontation with Little Turtle on the upper Wabash River (November 4, 1791), St. Clair suffered a disastrous defeat, the worst disaster in the long history of the Indian Wars. President George Washington -- not acknowledging defeat -- appointed Revolutionary War hero, General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, to lead the next assault. Realizing that Wayne's superior forces would surely defeat his warriors, Little Turtle advised the Indians to seek peace. The other Chiefs overthrew him, and gave his command to Turkey Foot. At the Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794), Anthony Wayne was victorious, losing only 33 of his own men in the battle. On August 3, 1795, the “Treaty of Greenville” resulted in the Indians' ceding the southeastern corner of the Northwest Territory, together with enclaves beyond Detroit and the future site of Chicago, in exchange for annuities amounting to $10,000. President Washington first learned of the treaty in a communication from Anthony Wayne, although he, as of that date, still did not have a text of the pact. So, President Washington instructed a cessation of hostilities between the Creeks and the Chickasaw Tribes. It was Washington's hope to be able to report to Congress in November that the United States enjoyed peace with every Indian nation. Yet, he had been instrumental in negotiating only a truce between the two warring tribes. At the end of September, Timothy Pickering finally forwarded a “certified” text of the accord Wayne had signed with the Ohio tribes, at Greenville. The way was now finally clear for the advance of the American farmers and entrepreneurs into the frontier of the rich American continent.

In the fall of 1795, President Washington offered the Attorney Generalship to John Marshall of Richmond, Virginia. The Supreme Court Justice declined. The offer next went to Thomas Johnson of Maryland, who pleaded failing health; and next an invitation was forwarded to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of Charleston. Eventually, Charles Lee of Virginia took the Cabinet Post on December 19, 1795.

In the Summer of 1795, the British cruiser “Africa,” under the command of Captain Rodman Home, had hovered just off Newport, Rhode Island in the hope of intercepting the French frigate Medusa, when that vessel put to sea. Several seamen from America merchant ships had been impressed into British Naval service by the British commander. On August 1, 1795, the cruiser entered American territorial waters to stop and search the costal packet “Peggy,” during which time the baggage of Joseph Fauchet, the Minister of the French Republic, was ransacked.

Secretary of War Pickering, who served from January 2nd to December 10th, 1795, filed a formal diplomatic protest. In early September, President Washington, determined that the sovereignty of the United States should not be affronted without redress, approved a detailed indictment of Home. The result was that all intercourse was henceforth prohibited between the people of Newport and the ship Africa. The Medusa, with the French Minister Joseph Fauchet aboard, slipped to sea from anchorage in Newport the night of August 31, 1795. It was pursued at once by Captain Home in the Africa. Washington directed Pickering to inform James Monroe, the Minister to France, of all the facts in the case.
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1795 GEORGE WASHINGTON Historic Autograph Letter

Estimate $40,000 - $50,000
Dec 13, 2014
Starting Price $40,000
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0116: 1795 GEORGE WASHINGTON Historic Autograph Letter

Sold for $40,000
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Est. $40,000 - $50,000Starting Price $40,000
Autographs - Coins - Currency - Americana
Sat, Dec 13, 2014 12:00 PM EST
Buyer's Premium 23%

Lot 0116 Details

Description
...
Autographs
President George Washington Prepares Treaty Ratifications With Great Britain (Jay's Treaty) and Awaits Confirmation of the Northwest Territory Indian Tribes Treaty (Treaty of Greenville)
GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799). 1st President of the United States (April 30, 1789 to March 4, 1797); a Founding Father of the United States, serving as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War; presided over the 1787 Constitutional Convention held at Philadelphia.
September 16, 1795-Dated Federal Period, Important Historical Content, Autograph Letter Signed, "G. Washington" as President, 3 pages, measuring 8.875" x 7.375", at Mount Vernon, Choice Very Fine. This outstanding Letter is addressed to Colonel Timothy Pickering serving as United States Secretary of State, marked as "(Private)" at the upper right of the first page. This Letter is in choice overall quality, having an Integral Transmittal Envelope upon the back sheet, retaining its original red wax seal with its resulting tear from opening at opposite having a deft repair. Housed in a special cloth hardcover slipcase for storage and presentation. A highly important Letter with rich historical content. Provenance: From the family of Timothy Pickering. ( Please see our Online Auction Catalog having significant additional historical information and content.)

The entire text is fully and completely by Washington’s own hand, where President George Washington writes, in full:

“Mount Vernon 16th Sept. 1795 ---- (Private)

Dear Sir, ---

Monday's mail brought me both your letters of the 11th instant. The one containing an extract from Maj. [Isaac] Craig's letter, relative to the conclusion of the treaty with the North Western Tribes of Indians, was very acceptable -- and I pray you to dispatch [James] Seagrove [US Agent of Southern Indian Affairs], and impress strongly upon him the necessity, and the earnest wish of the government, that we would, without delay, effect, if it can be done, a peace between the Creeks and Chiccasaws [Chickasaws]. It would be a pleasing circumstance not only to be enabled to say at the meeting of Congress -- that we were at Peace with all the Indian Nations, but by the mediation of the U. States we had settled the differences between the tribes above mentioned; the latter of whom having been always our friends, and engaged according to their own accord in a war partly on our behalf.

My letter from Baltimore by Express (the expence of which I preferred to the delay of waiting three days for the next mail) and my other letter from Elkton, will evince my anxiety to get the several dispatches for our public characters abroad namely -- [the former Minister to Great Britain / Special Commissioner and Envoy Extraordinary to Spain Thomas] Pinckney, [Minister to France James] Monroe and [Minister to The Hague John Quincy] Adams to hand as soon as possible; I request therefore to know (if they are gone) -- when, by whom, and for what Ports they were sent: -- and I request moreover, that several copies may be sent to all of them to insure the arrival of one.

I am sorry I had not sounded Mr. [Elias] Boudinot on the appointment to the Mint [as Director of the Mint -- nominated on December 10th, 1795; and confirmed on December 11th] before he left the vicinity of Philad; as Mr. [Henry William] de Dissausure [Director of the U.S. Mint] cannot, or will not, remain at his Post beyond the early part of October.

Mr. Marshall (from some peculiar circumstances) declines the offer of Attorney General; and I have been enquiring into the abilities and other qualifications for the Law characters in Maryland -- but not much to my satisfaction as yet.

I perceive by the Gazettes, that the [His Majesty's cruiser] Africa [under the command of Captain Rodman Home) was disappointed of her expected prize [the capture of the Medusa with French Minister Joseph Fauchet aboard], and had returned to her former station at New Port. Have you heard whether the order for quitting it, has been communicated to Captn. Holmes? -- and if so, what has been the result? -- and the sentiments it has excited in persons of different descriptions. --- With much truth, --- I am, Dear Sir, Your Affectionate -- (Signed) Go. Washington”.

Docket upon the back Transmittal page reads: “Private -- The President of the U.S. -- Sept. 16. 1795. recd. 19th. -- ansd. 21st & 23d.”

_______________

On November 19, 1794, Jay's Treaty with Great Britain was signed to settle terms of Peace, Amity, Commerce, Navigation, Boundaries and Extradition. The terms of the treaty were not made known until March of 1795. The Senate ratified the treaty on June 24, 1795, after long debate and President Washington signed the treaty on August 14, 1795.

On August 20, 1795, Secretary of War, Timothy Pickering, agreed to take on the duties of the office of Secretary of State -- after it was revealed (through the interceptions of communications from Joseph Fauchet, the Minister of the French Republic, to his own government) that Secretary of State Edmund Randolph was implicated in improper, “near-treasonous” activities. Randolph resigned when he was called in question by President Washington. Fauchet denied that he meant any reflections on his honor. Randolph himself wrote an elaborate vindication of his actions.

Pickering's immediate task was to prepare definitive instructions for the American diplomat who was to execute the exchange of treaty ratifications with Great Britain. The task was assigned to the most available diplomat of rank, John Quincy Adams, the American Minister resident at The Hague, who was immediately ordered to London. At the same time, the former Minister to Great Britain, Thomas Pinckney, was appointed “Special Commissioner and Envoy Extraordinary to Spain” (effective April of 1795) and was negotiating with Spain. Through his diligent efforts, the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Known as “Pinckney's Treaty”) of October 27, 1795 was signed at Madrid. Spain recognized the boundary claims of the U.S. under the Treaty of 1783 [in accordance with the treaty of peace between the U.S. and Great Britain] and gave to the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River. ( Please see our Online Auction Catalog having significant additional historical information and content.)


In the years following the American Revolution, American officials sought to force the Indians to submit to the victorious Colonials. However, the Indians still regarded themselves as independent and continued to negotiate from a position of insistent pride. Due to the Indians' obstinacy, the government was forced to enforce its claims by sending in the military.

In October 1791, General Arthur St. Clair, the Governor of the Northwest Territory (served 1787-1802), was sent into the wilderness with a 2,000-man force. In a bloody confrontation with Little Turtle on the upper Wabash River (November 4, 1791), St. Clair suffered a disastrous defeat, the worst disaster in the long history of the Indian Wars. President George Washington -- not acknowledging defeat -- appointed Revolutionary War hero, General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, to lead the next assault. Realizing that Wayne's superior forces would surely defeat his warriors, Little Turtle advised the Indians to seek peace. The other Chiefs overthrew him, and gave his command to Turkey Foot. At the Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794), Anthony Wayne was victorious, losing only 33 of his own men in the battle. On August 3, 1795, the “Treaty of Greenville” resulted in the Indians' ceding the southeastern corner of the Northwest Territory, together with enclaves beyond Detroit and the future site of Chicago, in exchange for annuities amounting to $10,000. President Washington first learned of the treaty in a communication from Anthony Wayne, although he, as of that date, still did not have a text of the pact. So, President Washington instructed a cessation of hostilities between the Creeks and the Chickasaw Tribes. It was Washington's hope to be able to report to Congress in November that the United States enjoyed peace with every Indian nation. Yet, he had been instrumental in negotiating only a truce between the two warring tribes. At the end of September, Timothy Pickering finally forwarded a “certified” text of the accord Wayne had signed with the Ohio tribes, at Greenville. The way was now finally clear for the advance of the American farmers and entrepreneurs into the frontier of the rich American continent.

In the fall of 1795, President Washington offered the Attorney Generalship to John Marshall of Richmond, Virginia. The Supreme Court Justice declined. The offer next went to Thomas Johnson of Maryland, who pleaded failing health; and next an invitation was forwarded to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of Charleston. Eventually, Charles Lee of Virginia took the Cabinet Post on December 19, 1795.

In the Summer of 1795, the British cruiser “Africa,” under the command of Captain Rodman Home, had hovered just off Newport, Rhode Island in the hope of intercepting the French frigate Medusa, when that vessel put to sea. Several seamen from America merchant ships had been impressed into British Naval service by the British commander. On August 1, 1795, the cruiser entered American territorial waters to stop and search the costal packet “Peggy,” during which time the baggage of Joseph Fauchet, the Minister of the French Republic, was ransacked.

Secretary of War Pickering, who served from January 2nd to December 10th, 1795, filed a formal diplomatic protest. In early September, President Washington, determined that the sovereignty of the United States should not be affronted without redress, approved a detailed indictment of Home. The result was that all intercourse was henceforth prohibited between the people of Newport and the ship Africa. The Medusa, with the French Minister Joseph Fauchet aboard, slipped to sea from anchorage in Newport the night of August 31, 1795. It was pursued at once by Captain Home in the Africa. Washington directed Pickering to inform James Monroe, the Minister to France, of all the facts in the case.

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